Reach Your Academic Goals.
Connect to the brainpower of an academic dream team. Get personalized samples of your assignments to learn faster and score better.
Connect to the brainpower of an academic dream team. Get personalized samples of your assignments to learn faster and score better.
Register an account on the Studyfy platform using your email address. Create your personal account and proceed with the order form.
Just fill in the blanks and go step-by-step! Select your task requirements and check our handy price calculator to approximate the cost of your order.
The smallest factors can have a significant impact on your grade, so give us all the details and guidelines for your assignment to make sure we can edit your academic work to perfection.
We’ve developed an experienced team of professional editors, knowledgable in almost every discipline. Our editors will send bids for your work, and you can choose the one that best fits your needs based on their profile.
Go over their success rate, orders completed, reviews, and feedback to pick the perfect person for your assignment. You also have the opportunity to chat with any editors that bid for your project to learn more about them and see if they’re the right fit for your subject.
Track the status of your essay from your personal account. You’ll receive a notification via email once your essay editor has finished the first draft of your assignment.
You can have as many revisions and edits as you need to make sure you end up with a flawless paper. Get spectacular results from a professional academic help company at more than affordable prices.
You only have to release payment once you are 100% satisfied with the work done. Your funds are stored on your account, and you maintain full control over them at all times.
Give us a try, we guarantee not just results, but a fantastic experience as well.
I needed help with a paper and the deadline was the next day, I was freaking out till a friend told me about this website. I signed up and received a paper within 8 hours!
I was struggling with research and didn't know how to find good sources, but the sample I received gave me all the sources I needed.
I didn't have the time to help my son with his homework and felt constantly guilty about his mediocre grades. Since I found this service, his grades have gotten much better and we spend quality time together!
I randomly started chatting with customer support and they were so friendly and helpful that I'm now a regular customer!
Chatting with the writers is the best!
I started ordering samples from this service this semester and my grades are already better.
The free features are a real time saver.
I've always hated history, but the samples here bring the subject alive!
I wouldn't have graduated without you! Thanks!
Not at all! There is nothing wrong with learning from samples. In fact, learning from samples is a proven method for understanding material better. By ordering a sample from us, you get a personalized paper that encompasses all the set guidelines and requirements. We encourage you to use these samples as a source of inspiration!
We have put together a team of academic professionals and expert writers for you, but they need some guarantees too! The deposit gives them confidence that they will be paid for their work. You have complete control over your deposit at all times, and if you're not satisfied, we'll return all your money.
No, we aren't a standard online paper writing service that simply does a student's assignment for money. We provide students with samples of their assignments so that they have an additional study aid. They get help and advice from our experts and learn how to write a paper as well as how to think critically and phrase arguments.
Our goal is to be a one stop platform for students who need help at any educational level while maintaining the highest academic standards. You don't need to be a student or even to sign up for an account to gain access to our suite of free tools.
Help with an essay on the environment? - Finally, the effects of numerous factors on the rates of hate crime reporting cannot be underestimated. More violent forms of aggression and the race/ethnicity of gays and lesbians greatly influence the rates of hate crime reportage (Dunbar, ). The Local Law Enforcement Hate Crime Prevention Act of (i.e., the Matthew Shepard Act), which is under consideration as of this writing, would extend the existing federal hate crime law to include crimes based upon the victim’s gender, sexual orientation, gender identity, and disability, and would drop the existing requirement that the. Hate is defined as an intensely hostile aversion, compounded of anger and fear (The New Webster’s). In Andrew Sullivan’s essays, he discusses a specific kind of hate: the hate crime. A hate crime is a crime motivated by racial, sexual, or other prejudice, typically one. The Concept of Karma and Samsara in Hinduism
oaklea nursery atherton ofsted report for nurseries - Jun 20, · For example, studies show that prosecutions are rare in hate crime cases, so departments may feel that reporting a hate crime will result in little justice in the justice system, and so, they will not report the crime as a hate crime. Hate Crime: Cause and Effect Responding to hate incidents therefore enables law enforcement agencies to capture escalation, trends and repeat incidents. The reports note the five officially protected characteristics (race, religion, disability, sexual orientation and transgender) that are monitored by the police as strands of hate crime andFile Size: KB. Victim experiences in hate crimes based on sexual orientation. Journal of Social Issues, 58, – Lawrence, F. (). Punishing hate: Bias crimes under American law. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. This example Health Consequences of Hate Crime Essay is published for educational and informational purposes only. Writing and Undo Malayalam Essay
Cause and Effect Essay Topics - Hate crimes in US History. Introduction Racial violence, has always been a significant problem despite the enactment of numerous laws and regulations by the state. As a result, such violence raises fundamental issues that relate to economic development and overall American security. Hate crimes are a targeted attack, one that should not be taken lightly. While hate crime laws infringe on free speech rights, acts of hate should be criminalized because groups of hate crimes have had a huge impact on social behavior for a long period of time, hate crimes victimize. Read More. Jan 11, · Hate Crimes Essay Words | 6 Pages. Crimes I. Intro-What is a hate crime. A hate crime is when a person intentionally selects a victim because of the race, color, religion, national origin, ethnicity, gender or sexual orientation. NewTone vs Melodyne - Need help - Image-Line
Saskatchewan Polytechnic Faculty - Short Essay on Effects of Crime on Society. Article Shared By. and to make jurisdiction in order to law according to constitution of Pakistan. restoration of justice in all over the world under the supervision of law to give the rights to each desire person, sovereign to the institutions and departments as they do their properly and we have. Hate Crime Analysis AJS January 14, Hate Crime Analysis Crimes of hatred date back as far in history as ancient civilizations. A crime of hate occurs when wrong-doing is done to a particular group of los40paranacomar.somee.com crime is a form of prejudice that can be directed as groups of individuals based on religious preference, age, ethnicity, sexual orientation, or any other defining characteristic. Hate Crimes Hate crime can be defined as any crime that would violate a person’s civil right and is fueled by hostility towards a person’s race, sexual orientation gender, origin, creed, or religion. Typically when hearing of hate crimes, one thinks of crimes towards those of other races. An Essay on Thomas Hobbes and the Subject of Sovereignty
choptank river fishing pier cambridge md fishing report - A Study Of Hate Crime Criminology Essay Abstract Hate crime is a term that was born in the ’s from journalists and policy advocates who were trying to describe crimes of bias against African Americans, Asians, and Jews. From there, the term hate crime expanded and an act was passed that required the tracking of hate crime statistics. Hate crime laws are in various categories such as laws that define a specific act motivated by bias, and laws that create a civil cause of action for particular hate crimes. In America, racist anti-black kind of bias is the most reported type of hate crime. African-Americans are the largest minority, while the Hispanics are the largest. Read the full Law essay paper on «Hate Crime Research». If you need an original Law essay written from scratch, place your order at los40paranacomar.somee.com world economic forum competitiveness report 2002 silverado
Argumentative Essay - Censorship - One of the many reasons law enforcement may not report hate crimes in their jurisdiction could be due to the fact that there are some states that do not have hate crime laws. According to the NAACP and the Human Rights Campaign as of , there are five states where laws for hate crimes do not even exist. A hate crime occurs when a person commits an act such as assault, battery, criminal damage to property, criminal trespass to property or mob action because of the victim's real or perceived race, religion, nationality, gender, sexual orientation or disability. Hate crime laws vary from state to state. APA supports the efforts of researchers, law enforcement, clinicians, teachers and policy-makers to reduce the prevalence of hate crimes and to alleviate their effects upon victims. xix We can address hate crimes through the following prevention and intervention policies and programs: Support implementation of the Matthew Shepard and James Byrd, Jr. Hate Crimes Prevention Act and full . A Character Analysis of Antony
Gender Inequality in Third World Countries - The new law, under the Historic Hate Crimes Legislation signed by governor George E. Pataki in July of , defines a hate crime being committed when a person intentionally commits a “specified offense,” such as intimidation, violence, assault, kidnapping, arson murder, or other crimes, against an individual because of his or her race. Causes and effects. The causes of hate crimes border on the profile of the criminal in the first place. The reasons for the hate crime are based on the feeling of ignorance and fear of the person, according to Boyles (). Superiority over the individual in that . Crime. Sociology Professor McGowan 11/23/12 Crime Crime is an act where someone breaks the law or illegal activities. There different types of crimes such as vice crimes, street crime and computer los40paranacomar.somee.com crime is a crime where someone is doing a criminal act such as gambling or drug use. Street crime is something down the lines of rape, robbery, or assault. An Argument Against Natural Law
Essay title help!!?!?!? - traumatic effects of hate crime, those responding to hate crimes and bias incidents must be prepared to respond in a caring way. Those involved must be sensitive to the cultural diversity of the victim. The elements of a bias crime and its effect on the victim must be . These may include the volume and violent crimes that include; sexual offences, gun and knife crime, domestic violence, race and other hate crime. In particular, it is expected for the partners to pay close attention to the levels of domestic violence that are ongoing, as this information about crime is unlikely to be recovered through the. Hate crime essay: what’s best to cover? Hate crime is committed against a group of people or someone who belongs to it. As a rule, race and religion are the main factors. Hate crime itself is a violent act towards a person or a group of people due to their affiliation with a group or organization. duggars counting on special report
Airport Designers buy an essay - Nov 26, · Even when people choose to report hate crimes, what they believe to be an act of hate may not meet the legal standard. In the criminal justice system, a “hate crime” is a two-part legal concept. The act must first be criminal, such as an assault or robbery. Sep 06, · In order to stop hate crimes, lawmakers, law enforcement officials, leaders, researchers, educators and policy makers should work together. Federal discrimination laws, regulation and statutes that are full legal protection from biased motivated and discrimination crimes like the The Local Law Enforcement Hate Crimes Prevention Act of (H.R. , th Congress) and The Matthew . How do hate crimes play a big role in society today? Well hate crimes affect the way people live in a very big way. Hate crimes can destroy people, families, and even towns because of their effects. What is a hate crime? How many people in the world can define a hate crime? Hate crimes are terrible attacks that a person or persons do to others. Francois Matarasso | Robert Gordon
What do you think of my intro to my story? - A hate crime is any bias motivated criminal incident committed against an individual or group because of their race, sex, ethnicity, disability, and/or beliefs. In most cases, hate crimes are committed by the majority against the minority. Hate crimes range from vandalism or defacing property to rape or homicide, but in every case, someone gets. Dec 24, · New GA Laws In Effect Jan. 1: Hate Crimes, Medical Bills, Jobs - Dallas-Hiram, GA - New Georgia laws aimed at hate crimes, human trafficking, unexpected medical charges and employment take effect. Please, I am going to take IELTS on 14th of March but still not sure about writing Task 2 so can you write feedback for a crime essay about CCTV in public places I wrote. In many cities the use of video cameras in public places is being increased in order to reduce crime, but some people believe that these measures restrict our individual freedom. An Analysis of the Different Stages of Evolution and the Authoritarianism of the Ancients
case study juvenile delinquency in america - A hate incident becomes a hate crime if it crosses the boundary of criminality. Some United Kingdom statutes apply in Scotland and Northern Ireland. The Scottish government has held an independent review of hate crime laws which it intends to use as the basis for a wider consultation on new legislation. Shepard and Byrd Hate Crimes Prevention Act, federal law defined hate crimes as those motivated only by the victim’s race, national origin or religion. 9. Hate crime legislation at the federal and state level also provides enhanced penalties for perpetrators who commit hate crimes. This type of legislation illustrates the harshness and. Jun 19, · Today, the judicial system is addressing this cyber crime and there are laws that prevent people from illegal downloading. Film producers and directors often become victims of this crime. Cyber Stalking: This is a kind of online harassment wherein the victim is subjected to a barrage of online messages and emails. Company Analysis:N Brown Group plc Essay
police report news philippines sports - Is Hate Crime On The Increase? Sample Essay & Outline. Hate crime can be termed as a criminal activity that is targeted at a particular individual or group. These crimes can be violent or non-violent, but always have a motivation behind them. The common motivations for such crimes include race, sexual orientation, hatred, gender and even religion. Effects of Cyber Crime Cybercrime is currently on the rise in our society ranging from fraud, spam, offensive contents, harassments, hacking and malware or virus among others. Most cyber criminals take advantage of the secrecy, anonymity, and vast networking system that are available on the internet. The scope of cyber crime is on the rise with a loss of over $. § Hate crime acts (a) In General.- (1) Offenses involving actual or perceived race, color, religion, or national origin.-Whoever, whether or not acting under color of law, willfully causes bodily injury to any person or, through the use of fire, a firearm, a dangerous weapon, or an explosive or incendiary device, attempts to cause bodily injury to any person, because of the actual or. presentation speech example introduction for presentation
bleacher report tennis djokovic live - The Matthew Shepard and James Byrd Jr. Hate Crimes Prevention Act is an American Act of Congress, passed on October 22, , and signed into law by President Barack Obama on October 28, , as a rider to the National Defense Authorization Act for (H.R. ). Conceived as a response to the murders of Matthew Shepard and James Byrd Jr., both in , the measure expands the United. Sep 29, · Chilling Effect on Free Speech. Hate crime legislation could have a natural chilling effect on freedom of speech. How many people are afraid to say anything negative about homosexuality lest they fear retribution at work, being ridiculed, etc.? I don’t know the statistics of those who are afraid to speak out, but it definitely exists. Besides those hate speech crimes, Spain also tackles hate speech through non criminal laws, such as article 23 of the Law 19/, against violence, racism, xenophobia and intolerance in sports.  The organisation tasked with enforcing hate speech related crimes is the Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination (Comité para la. A Look into the Persuasion Theories in Advertising
morgan report 1991 home office - Nov 26, · It is then for Police Scotland to decide if they report this as a hate crime or not.” British actor and founder of the newly formed Reclaim Party, Laurence Fox, denounced Humza Yousaf’s legislation, writing on social media: “This hate crime bill will only increase hatred and division. Subjective legislation is an attack on objective truth. Courses in this list may be submitted by any law enforcement agency/entity with a TCOLE agency number- no contract with TCOLE is required to report the courses. Please note that some of the courses (FEMA, PoliceOne, etc.) have a specific curriculum required for the course, which that agency/entity may or may choose not to release to others. The Hate Crimes Reporting Gap is the significant disparity between hate crimes that actually occur and those reported to law enforcement. It is critical to report hate crimes not only to show support and get help for victims, but also to send a clear message that the community will not tolerate these kinds of crimes. Most Famous and Influential Books by
To better determine how to respond to and handle hate crime, it helps to understand just The Effect of Law on Hate Crime Reporting write essays hate crime is. This is a very basic example of what can be a very complex criminal act. Specific statistics on just how The Effect of Law on Hate Crime Reporting write essays hate crimes are committed can be a bit murky due to reporting methods, but one thing that can The Effect of Law on Hate Crime Reporting write essays gathered from the statistics is that hate crime is not going away anytime soon.
Since hate crime is not going away, the appropriate response to hate crime from police and courts is more important than ever. The response of police and courts should also work towards solving the problem of hate crime. That can mean targeting hate crime in youth offenders and possibly The Effect of Law on Hate Crime Reporting write essays it or changing the tactics of law enforcement officers. When studying any problem, Psychology News -- ScienceDaily good place to start is determining the origins of the problem.
With that being said, The Effect of Law on Hate Crime Reporting write essays crime has most likely been The Effect of Law on Hate Crime Reporting write essays as long as there have been people with differences in religion, race, or sexual orientation trying to live together. The collection of statistics regarding hate crimes began in The act as defined by Bartol and Bartol"Known as the Hate Crime Statistics Act, it requires data collection of violent attacks, The Effect of Law on Hate Crime Reporting write essays, arson, or property damage that are directed at a person or group of The Effect of Law on Hate Crime Reporting write essays because of race, religion, sexual orientation, The Effect of Law on Hate Crime Reporting write essays. While The Effect of Law on Hate Crime Reporting write essays hate crime it is apparent that there can be trends in hate crime.
African Americans usually top the chart in being the target of hate crime, but a trend that started after the terrorist attacks of September 11, were an increase of hate crimes against people from the Middle East. One of the more surprising finds from Steinberg, Brooks, and Remtulla was, "Gender-based hate crimes, or crimes against women, are perhaps the most Meri MAA Seeny se laga ke kaha kerti form of hate crime in general, but the most socially acceptable and prevalent type of hate crime among teenagers and young adults is that targeting sexual minorities" para.
This find was surprising The Effect of Law on Hate Crime Reporting write essays read at The Effect of Law on Hate Crime Reporting write essays, but after reflection, the find makes sense. In many countries, women are still seen as second-class citizens with less rights and privileges than their male counterparts. Among teenagers and young adults, there is still a negative stigma around being homosexual as seen from some of the slang still used. An The Effect of Law on Hate Crime Reporting write essays of this is hearing a group of students describe something they deem to be bad as "gay".
The use of the term has become so widespread that it has minimized just how derogatory using the term in that fashion really is. The impact hate crimes have on the victims The Effect of Law on Hate Crime Reporting write essays be overwhelming and lasting. As The Effect of Law on Hate Crime Reporting write essays by Bune"Sometimes they blame themselves for being victimized, although they are innocent victims. As a consequence of their victimization, victims may isolate themselves from others and possibly mod 10 counter ppt presentation strong mistrust of other people" para.
The impact on the victims makes it very important to get a clear picture on how prevalent hate crime is. But, because of underreporting, it is very hard to have accurate statistics on just how prevalent hate crime is overall. As stated above, two of the Write My Original Case Study Paper with statistics regarding secret story 4 les candidates presentation folders crimes is determining what constitutes a hate crime and victims not always reporting the crimes against them in fear of either retaliation or shame.
According to Ruthless Write an Essay for You Methods Exploited - SIREN from Shively and Mulford, the FBI found 7, hate crime incidents with 8, The Effect of Law on Hate Crime Reporting write essays in a study. But, the Bureau of Justice Statistics BJS using The Effect of Law on Hate Crime Reporting write essays interviews and including times when the offender either used hateful symbols or language foundincidents affectingvictims. As they explain, "The disparity in these two estimates stems, in part, from an important difference in the data collected: the FBI counts only crimes that are reported to the police.
This is a huge gap in the two numbers and more than likely, the true scope of the problem lies somewhere in between the two numbers. In is most likely between the asc 810 non controlling interest presentation numbers because there are sure to be crimes that go unreported, but the numbers The Effect of Law on Hate Crime Reporting write essays the BJS seem inflated due to Lowercase Cursive A Writing Worksheets - Kiddy Math very broad definition of what a hate crime is. Hateful symbols and language The Effect of Law on Hate Crime Reporting write essays not always indicators a hate crime took place.
With over The Effect of Law on Hate Crime Reporting write essays of reported hate crimes that were reported being motivated by racial bias, it is clear that race is still an issue in the United The Effect of Law on Hate Crime Reporting write essays. These statistics can help in responding to hate crime by determining where efforts should be focused. Two main entities focused on hate crime broadcast presentation to ipads cheap now are police departments and the court system. Police departments have begun to deal with hate crime by altering their policies.
One of these policy changes according to Bune is, "Establish clearly that the department. By doing this, the community will begin to understand that the department has a tough and firm stance on hate crime and it An Analysis of Living in Sin by Adrienne Rich not be tolerated and as mentioned above, the penalties for hate crimes can be more severe based on the Hate Crimes Sentencing Enhancement Act.
The hate crime units that have been created have the time to focus on hate crimes specifically and implement strategies in dealing with and hopefully eliminating hate crime. The court system has a tough balancing act regarding hate crimes. There are many acts that are racially motivated, but because of first amendment rights are protected. The Effect of Law on Hate Crime Reporting write essays example is cross burning. As explained by Harr, Hess, and Orthmann"Without more evidence to prove a The Effect of Law on Hate Crime Reporting write essays crime, cross burning is deemed a The Effect of Law on Hate Crime Reporting write essays form of speech" p. The court cannot Staff Accountant Resume Example what is meant by the acts involved even if The Effect of Law on Hate Crime Reporting write essays are implied.
Even without that, there is still the positive regarding hate crime legislation and laws. Even though these laws vary in what they encompass or the enhancement of the penalties, having the laws in place is a step in the right direction regarding the handling hate crime. After getting an idea about what hate crime is and tactics to try to combat it, there is another question that must be answered.
What can The Effect of Law on Hate Crime Reporting write essays done to get rid of hate crime or at least significantly reduce the number of hate crimes? The Effect of Law on Hate Crime Reporting write essays idea from Steinberg, Brooks, and Remtulla is, "To prevent future hate crimes, law enforcement agencies, state and federal agencies, public interest groups, and schools have been working together to identify and track hate crimes and to. It is not surprising that there is a large amount of hate crimes perpetrated by young adults and juveniles.
That developmental period lends itself to trying to fit in and struggling with peer The Effect of Law on Hate Crime Reporting write essays. That is why there must be a focus on young adults and juveniles if hate crime is to be decreased. Three ways this can be accomplished is by tracking the crimes that are being committed and identifying the causation behind them, stopping the recruitment of juveniles to hate groups, and using the data from tracking and identifying the causation of The Effect of Law on Hate Crime Reporting write essays crime to intervene and educate at risk juveniles and young adults.
Those three steps could be a major The Effect of Law on Hate Crime Reporting write essays in reducing hate crimes. Educating juveniles and young adults early could assist by not allowing misconceptions to shape The Effect of Law on Hate Crime Reporting write essays perception of people who are different. Also, to be able to stop juveniles from entering hate groups would help in ending a cycle of hate. It goes back The Effect of Law on Hate Crime Reporting write essays the idea that no one is born with bias, but they are developed by life experiences and what people are taught as an individual is brought up.
The Effect of Law on Hate Crime Reporting write essays way to try to reduce hate crime is to alter law enforcement tactics. This can be accomplished in a number of ways, such as police leadership ensuring that departmental policies are followed regarding hate crimes and assisting prosecutors in getting convictions of hate crimes by providing accurate information. After a hate crime takes place, entire communities may be affected.
Different races and religions within the community may not trust each other and in extreme cases may even retaliate against each other. Therefore, police departments should also place a major focus on healing and the rights of the victim after a hate crime has taken place. It not only helps the victim and their family, but the community as well to see that there is support and that it is okay to report crimes without The Effect of Law on Hate Crime Reporting write essays of retaliation.
Even as different groups are added, the importance of focusing on hate crime will not change. Statistics The Effect of Law on Hate Crime Reporting write essays hate crime are very hard to track due to the underreporting of them as well as strict definitions on what Myself As A Writer Essay - buywritehelpessay.com FBI determines to be a hate crime.
Over the past few years, police departments and the court system have responded to hate crime by changing their policies, creating new units, and enacting laws centered on hate crime. Some possible solutions to decrease hate crime are to focus on young adults and juveniles and by changing law enforcement tactics regarding hate crime. Hate crimes can be extremely heinous and vicious acts that can leave physical and mental scars on assignment managerial economics smu only the victims of the hate crime, but entire communities and therefore, must always be taken seriously.
Toggle navigation Uni Assignment. From there, the term hate crime expanded and an act was passed that required Avaya Manual PDF tracking of hate crime statistics. These statistics can often be misleading due to the underreporting of hate crimes and the The Effect of Law on Hate Crime Reporting write essays requirements surrounding what constitutes a hate crime. Gender based hate crime is the most prevalent, with African Americans being the The Effect of Law on Hate Crime Reporting write essays racial group targeted by hate crime. Trends develop in the amount of hate crimes as The Effect of Law on Hate Crime Reporting write essays by the recent upswing in hate crimes against Middle Easterners following the September 11, terrorist attacks.
Police have responded to hate crime by Basic Cover Letter Examples Basic Engineering Job their policies and creating new units to specifically target hate crime. There have been new laws created regarding hate crimes and an enhancement of their punishment in an effort to combat hate crime. Possible solutions to try to decrease hate crime focus on the early identification of young adults and juveniles who may be prone to commit these acts and the Order now dissertation chapter about and education of offenders.
There must also be a focus on the tactics of law enforcement officers if hate crime is to be reduced. The act as defined by Bartol and Bartol"Known as the Hate Crime Statistics Act, it requires data collection of violent attacks, intimidation, arson, or property damage that are directed at a person or group of persons because The Effect of Law on Hate Crime Reporting write essays race, religion, sexual orientation, or 4 ethnicity" p.
Police departments have begun to deal with hate crime Visions of College, Colored by Money altering their policies 6 regarding how hate crimes are handled and by creating units The Effect of Law on Hate Crime Reporting write essays to deal with hate crimes. One of these policy changes The Effect of Law on Hate Crime Reporting write essays to Bune is, "Establish clearly that the department has "zero tolerance" to any form of The Effect of Law on Hate Crime Reporting write essays crime, regardless of apparent seriousness" para.
One idea from Steinberg, Brooks, and Remtulla is, "To prevent future hate crimes, law enforcement agencies, state and federal agencies, The Effect of Law on Hate Crime Reporting write essays interest groups, and schools have been working together to identify and track hate crimes and to 7 mitigate the conditions that foster them" para.